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The Kings and Queens of England
since AD 1066

The History Zone Index

This page is primarily intended to include the main undertakings by each monarch at Windsor such as buildings, renovation, and structural additions.
This area will feature more illustrations of the Kings and Queens of England as time permits.

Updated April 2013

 Name and Dynasty

Accession

Death

The House of Normandy

William I
(William the Conqueror)
Had a Palace at Old Windsor which he gave to the Abbey of Westminster just before he died. Buried at Caen, Normandy. Founded Windsor Castle at 'New ' Windsor.
1066  1087
William II
(William Rufus). Buried at Winchester.
1087  1100
Henry I
Kept court at Windsor for the first time in 1110 and married his second Queen, Adelaide of Louvain, here in 1121. His first wife was Eadgyth, daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland. Buried at Reading.
 1100  1135
Stephen
Buried at Faversham Abbey, Kent.
 1135  1154

  The House of Plantagenet

   
Henry II
Held a Great Council (Parliament) at Windsor in 1175. Buried at Fontevraud, France.
1154 1189
Richard I
(Richard Coeur de Lion)
Placed Windsor Castle under the care of Hugh Pudsey, Bishop of Durham, who was attacked here in 1190 by William Longchamp, Bishop of Ely, and who captured the Castle. Buried at Fontevraud, France.
1189 1199
John
(of Magna Carta fame) Buried at Worcester.
 1199  1216
Henry III
Completed the walls around the Castle by building the west end and the three towers in the Lower Ward. He also built a chapel on the site of the present Albert Memorial Chapel, and the adjoining cloister and also the tower now known as the Henry III Tower. Buried at Westminster Abbey.
 1216  1272
Edward I
Known as the 'Hammer' of the Scots, he brought the Coronation Stone to Westminster, created his son first Prince of Wales, and commemorated death of his first wife, Eleanor of Castile, by erecting memorials at each halting place of the funeral procession from Nottinghamshire to Westminster - the Eleanor Crosses.
Edward I stayed often at the Castle and made Windsor a Free Borough and granted the town its first Charter in 1276. Buried at Westminster Abbey.

 1272

 1307

Edward II

Stayed at Windsor regularly, some of his children were born here. He was routed at Bannockburn, and murdered in Berkeley Castle. Buried at Gloucester.

 1307  1327

Edward III

Born at Windsor, and known as Edward of Windsor. He pulled down a great part of the old Castle and rebuilt it on stronger lines. The Round Tower, Edward III Tower, the Norman Gateway, King John's Tower and several other important parts of the Castle were built by Edward.
Plunged England into fruitless '100 Years War', his son, The Black Prince, was most renowned warrior in Europe. Buried at Westminster Abbey.


 1327

 1377

Richard II

Courageous but unbalanced. Ultimately deposed. Died mysteriously in Pontefract Castle. Buried first at Kings Langley, afterwards Westminster Abbey.


 1377

D
ep. 1399

The House of Lancaster

Henry IV

Bolingbroke. Orthodox, devout, son of John of Gaunt, and twice married. Buried at Canterbury.

The Crowning of Henry VI

The crowning of Henry VI
as a child
 1399  1413

Henry V

The warrior king. Married Katherine of France. Buried at Westminster Abbey.

1413  1422

Henry VI

Born at Windsor. Founder of Eton College. Murdered in the Tower of London. Buried first at Chertsey, afterwards at Windsor in St George's Chapel.

 1422  Dep. 1461

The House of York

Edward IV

Handsome, despotic, patron of the arts, married Elizabeth Woodville, a widow. Built the Choir of St. George's Chapel and commenced the Nave. Buried at Windsor in St George's Chapel.

 1461  1483

Edward V

Reigned just four months, murdered, one of 'The Princes in the Tower'. (See Richard III, below)

Buried first at Tower of London, afterwards at Westminster.

 1483  1483

Richard III

Killed at Battle of Bosworth Field on 22nd August 1485.

For centuries the whereabouts of his human remains was unknown. There is a memorial plaque in Leicester Cathedral where it was thought that he may have been buried, but that his body was moved during the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Another tradition had it that his body was thrown into the nearby River Soar, which means it could have ended up anywhere.

The mystery was finally solved when in August 2012 his remains were discovered under a car park in the city of Leicester. There is more information here.

 1483  1485

The House of Tudor

Henry VII

Crowned at Battle of Bosworth. Thrifty, shrewd, his marriage united the Houses of Lancaster and York. Completed the Nave of St. George's Chapel. Also erected personal apartments in the Upper Ward. Buried at Westminster.

 1485  1509

Henry VIII

Henry VIII

Born on the 28th June 1491, Henry was an impressive and shrewd man, yet selfish. In 1509 Henry became king at the age of only 19 following the death of his father King Henry VII. Henry desperately wanted a son and heir and this led to the creation of the Church of England as a result of his long running disputes with the Catholic Church and the Pope in Rome over his right to divorce two of his six wives. Henry declared himself Supreme Head of the Church of England and was responsible for the dissolution of the monasteries. He also founded the Royal Armouries in 1515 at Greenwich Palace.
Henry VIII ruled until his death on the 28th January 1547. He is buried in St. George's Chapel at Windsor Castle. One of his favourite ships, the Mary Rose, was lifted from the bottom of the Solent in the 1980s and is now on display at Portsmouth.
Henry VIII built the great gateway which bears his name and completed the stone roof of St George's Chapel.
Buried at Windsor in St George's Chapel.

 1509  1547

Edward VI

Weakling son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, came to throne at age of nine. Buried at Westminster.

 1547  1553

Queen Jane

Reigned 14 days. Executed at The Tower aged 17. Buried at Tower of London,

 1553  1553

Mary I

Embittered daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. "Bloody Mary" - Married Philip of Spain.
Erected a large number of the houses now occupied by the Military Knights. Buried at Westminster.

 1553  1558

Elizabeth I

Majestic daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Saw England rise to be a first class power.
Elizabeth built the North Terrace and the Gallery overlooking it. Buried at Westminster.

 1558  1603

 The House of Stuart

James I (VI of Scotland)

Married Anne of Denmark. Buried at Westminster.

 1603  1625

Charles I

Married Henrietta-Maria of France. Charles I executed at Whitehall, London. Buried at Windsor in St George's Chapel.

 1625  Beheaded. 1649
Commonwealth declared 19th May 1649. Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector, 1653-58. Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector, 1658-59

Charles II

Brilliant, cynical. Knew defeat, exile and poverty. Married Portuguese princess, Catherine of Braganza.
Charles was responsible for many improvements in the Castle, restoring and finely decorating the State Apartments. He also created the East and South Terraces, c.1676. Thirteen years earlier in 1663 Charles had created a Bowling Green where the Terraces are now at a cost of £13.12.0. The magnificent
Long Walk was started in his reign. Buried at Westminster.

 (restored 1660) 1649  1685

James II (VII of Scotland)

Fled to France, where he died. Married twice. Buried at St. Germains, France.

 1685  Deposed 1688.
Died 1701

William III and Mary II

Prince of Orange. A courageous fighter with few friends. Reigned and crowned together as Joint-Sovereigns. Mary died in 1694. William III and Mary II were both buried at Westminster.

1689 1702

Anne

Daughter of James II and Anne Hyde. Married George of Denmark. Her many children died young. Buried at Westminster.

 1702  1714

 The House of Hanover

George I

George I

German. Died in Hanover. Never learned the English language. Married Sophia-Dorothea of Celle, a prisoner until her death. Buried at Hanover.

 1714  1727

George II

George II

Ambitious of military glory. Niggardly, irritable. Married capable, adroit Caroline of Ansbach. Buried at Westminster.

 1727  1760

George III

George III

Click for larger version

During his reign England lost the American colonies. George III married Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz in 1761 to whom he was devoted. The couple had fifteen children, nine sons and six daughters. At Windsor, he excavated the Royal Tomb House under the Albert Memorial Chapel and commenced a number of restorations which were to be completed by his son, George IV.
George III suffered from porphyria, a debilitating disease which affected him as early as 1765 and throughout the last years of his reign. George III died blind, deaf and mad at Windsor Castle on January 29, 1820. Buried at Windsor in St George's Chapel.

George III
1760  1820

George IV

George IV

Gifted, but dissolute and extravagant. Married Caroline of Brunswick (who was refused admission to Coronation)
George IV was responsible for the major changes to the Castle that we can see today, in particular the raising of the famous Round Tower. He transformed the Castle into a palace. Buried at Windsor in St George's Chapel.

 1820  1830

William IV

Served 10 years in the Navy. Married Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen.
Continued making additions to the Castle, in particular the Waterloo Chamber. Buried at Windsor in St George's Chapel.

 1830  1837

Victoria

Queen Victoria

Click here for larger view

Crowned at 18, reigned for 64 years. Married Albert of Saxe-Coburg.
Victoria rebuilt the Royal Stables and undertook much work on the Wolsey Chapel which was renamed the Albert Memorial Chapel. Buried at Windsor in Frogmore Mausoleum.
The Funeral of Queen Victoria

 1837  1901

The House of Saxe-Coburg  

 Edward VII

Edward VII

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Man of the world and keen sportsman. Married Alexandra of Denmark. Died Sandringham.
Continued with small additions to the Castle such as the Processional Staircase from the East Terrace.
Buried at Windsor in St George's Chapel. The Funeral of Edward VII

 1901  1910

The House of Saxe-Coburg
The House of Windsor - From 1917

George V

George V

Click here for larger view
plus tinted postcard

Married Victoria Mary of Teck (Queen Mary). Died Sandringham.
Carried on the restoration and improvements to the Castle.
Buried at Windsor in St George's Chapel. See also Memorial at Windsor and The Funeral of George V.

1910 28th January 1936

Edward VIII

Edward VIII

Click here for larger view
plus tinted postcard

Born 23rd June 1894. Died 28th May 1972. Buried in the grounds of Frogmore House.

Edward VIII reigned 11 months following the death of George V. Abdicated December 10th, 1936 to marry Mrs Simpson, a divorcee. Later to become Duke of Windsor. Lived in Paris subsequently. Buried at Windsor in the gardens of Frogmore. The Abdication Speech is included here. For more detail about The Abdication please see Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother

1936  Abdicated 1936

George VI

A popular and much loved figure, given great support and encouragement by his consort, who, after his death became Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother. Buried at Windsor in St George's Chapel. HM Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother was buried beside him in 2002. See The Funeral of George VI (Includes Order of Service).

1936 6th February 1952

Elizabeth II

A very popular monarch. Despite many family difficulties over the years, Queen Elizabeth remains widely respected worldwide.
By this time modernisation of the Castle, in terms of structural alterations, was out of favour. It would be impossible today to make the major external alterations that took place, say, in George IV's reign. A number of changes were however incorporated following the Windsor Castle Fire of November 1992. These alterations, although highly successful, would not otherwise have been incorporated.

Golden Jubilee reports

6th Feb 1952
Coronation
2nd June 1953
 Whom God Preserve

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